Dyslexia is different from a normal reading and spelling disability, because the latter can occur temporarily, for example when a child is exposed to unfavorable psychosocial factors such as a change of residence or divorce of the parents. Genetic factors do not play a role here, because the child can usually solve his or her reading and writing problems again with the help of child psychological support. A reading and writing disability is therefore only called dyslexia if it is genetically determined, although the term special reading and writing disability is sometimes also used for it.
Dyslexia can vary in severity and be favored by genetic factors. More common than such congenital dyslexia, however, is acquired dyslexia, because in this case the brain or the region of the brain responsible for reading has been damaged by an accident or stroke. Typically, the reading speed slows down drastically in dyslexia, and often affected persons do not understand what they read, slip in the line or twist letters. With various examinations and a special test dyslexia can be determined, where usually a lot of understanding, a special promotion and an adapted performance evaluation in school can effectively help affected children.