Getting the important information out of a text is a key to efficient learning. Once you have an overview, you can grasp the material better. The ways to get there are very different. First, the text is usually read, longer texts are skimmed for their essential aspects. Many books place summaries at the beginning or end of a chapter; tables of contents are also suitable for initial orientation. This is followed by a reduction to the essential content, i.e. key words and phrases are emphasised by underlining or marginalia; unessentials can also be crossed out. Studies have shown that good learners tend to mark very sparingly, whereby texts can be reduced to their substance by writing out central terms. It is also useful to summarise the text in your own words, which you can do alone or together, trying to explain what the text is about. Self-made tables, mind maps and flashcards are suitable as individual learning overviews.